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Volume : 37 Issue : 2 Year : 2022



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Optimal Dose and Concentration of Hypertonic Saline in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review [Medeniyet Med J]
Medeniyet Med J. 2022; 37(2): 203-211 | DOI: 10.4274/MMJ.galenos.2022.75725  

Optimal Dose and Concentration of Hypertonic Saline in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

Martin USANTO1, Ika RIANTRI2
1University of Padjadjaran, Department of Neurosurgery, Bandung, Indonesia
2Medistra Health Institute, Lubuk Pakam, Indonesia

Management of increased intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury remains challenging in neurosurgical emergencies. The mainstay of medical management for increased intracranial pressure is hyperosmolar therapy with mannitol or hypertonic saline. Mannitol has been the “gold standard” osmotic agent for almost a century. Given its wide usage, there has been a dilemma of concern because of its adverse effects. Over the past few decades, hypertonic saline has become an increasingly better alternative. To date, there is no consensus on the optimal therapeutic dose and concentration of hypertonic saline for treating increased intracranial pressure. This systematic review aimed to compare the efficacy of hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of traumatic brain injury and investigate the optimal dose and concentration of hypertonic saline for the treatment. Extensive research was conducted on PubMed, DOAJ, and Cochrane databases. Studies published within the last 20 years were included. Research articles in the form of meta-analyses, clinical trials, and randomized controlled trials were preferred. Those with ambiguous remarks, irrelevant correlations to the main issue, or a focus on other disorders were excluded. Nineteen studies were included in the systematic review. Eleven studies have stated that hypertonic saline and mannitol were equally efficacious, whereas eight studies have reported that hypertonic saline was superior. Moreover, 3% hypertonic saline was the main concentration most discussed in research. Improvements in increased intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, survival rate, brain relaxation, and systemic hemodynamics were observed. Hypertonic saline is worthy of consideration as an excellent alternative to mannitol. This study suggests 3% hypertonic saline as the optimal concentration, with the therapeutic dose from 1.4 to 2.5 mL/kg, given as a bolus.

Keywords: Hypertonic saline, intracranial pressure, mannitol, traumatic brain injury


Martin USANTO, Ika RIANTRI. Optimal Dose and Concentration of Hypertonic Saline in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review. Medeniyet Med J. 2022; 37(2): 203-211

Corresponding Author: Martin USANTO, Indonesia


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